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جمعه، ۱۱ تیر ۱۳۹۵
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Oxygen

The Molecule That Made the World

نویسنده:  Nick Lane

Oxygen

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Nick Lane's book, Oxygen The Molecule that made the World, is a surprising volume. It mixes organic and inorganic chemistry with evolutionary studies, paleontology, research medicine, and even a little engineering to explain how the world got to be as it is. The first half of the book is dedicated to what our early atmosphere was like and how it changed as a result of biological activity. It also discusses how the evolving atmosphere, particularly the presence of oxygen, affected the complexity of early life and the sudden flourish of biological diversity after the Precambrian. The last half of the volume deals with the recent research on free radicals and their effect on health and on the phenomena of aging and of immortality.
Doctor Lane's own background is in biochemistry, and his research focus has been on oxygen free radicals and metabolic function in organ transplants. Not surprisingly he went into some detail about the free radical cascade that affects cellular metabolism and DNA integrity. I found this somewhat difficult to understand as I have only a very rudimentary grounding in organic chemistry. Still I have to admit that I know somewhat more about the process than I did before reading this book.
Probably because I know significantly more about geology and paleontology, I enjoyed more fully the author's synthesis and analysis of what we know of the geological and biological development of our atmosphere and our planet. Some of this material was familiar to me from other sources: Certainly that O2 can actually be a "poison" I know from managing patients with ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome) on mechanical ventilators with 100% O2; that the earth went through a series of green house earth/snowball earth phases early in its history I had learned from Ward and Brownlee's book Rare Earth; that life had begun almost as early as it was able and much earlier than had been previously believed, I was aware of from works by Gould, Schopf, and others; and that the mitochondria may once have been free-living, aerobic organisms that formed a symbiotic relationship with anaerobic organisms was known to me from my past exposure to microbiology in a nursing class.
New to me however, was the concept that gigantism may have been a means of limiting the negative effects of a periodic increase in oxygen in the environment, as Dr. Lane suggests in his chapter on The Bolsover Dragonfly. Although I had read an article that suggested that the immense sizes achieved by some of the dinosaur species might have been due to a higher percent of O2 at the time, I had also understood that it was because oxygen was a "good" thing, an opportunity of sorts. Lane points out that the negative effects of oxygen on tissues and DNA through the free radical cascade might have been ameliorated by an increased size. An animal–or one presumes also a plant–that increased its size might have been able to distribute negative effects over a greater body mass. One wonders if the rise of the mammalian mega fauna of the ice ages and their sudden almost catastrophic disappearance might not also have been due to some temporary fluxuation in the oxygen level of their atmosphere. (In which case the early Native Americans could be once and for all exonerated of having liquidated them, since their demise would have been dictated by a return to a baseline oxygen level!) If this were the case, one might also question what type of changes might be expected among our own kind as a result of such an increase and decrease of atmospheric oxygen.

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کتاب رادیوشیمی و شیمی هسته ای

جمعه، ۴ تیر ۱۳۹۵
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Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry

نویسنده:  Gregory Choppin ،  Jan-Olov Liljenzin ،  Jan Rydberg ، Christian Ekberg

Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry

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Radiochemistry or nuclear chemistry is the study of radiation from an atomic and molecular perspective, including elemental transformation and reaction effects, as well as physical, health and medical properties.

This revised edition of one of the earliest and best-known books on the subject has been updated to bring into teaching the latest developments in research and the current hot topics in the field. To further enhance the functionality of this text, the authors have added numerous teaching aids, examples in MathCAD with variable quantities and options, hotlinks to relevant text sections from the book, and online self-grading tests.

  • New edition of a well-known, respected text in the specialized field of nuclear/radiochemistry
  • Includes an interactive website with testing and evaluation modules based on exercises in the book
  • Suitable for both radiochemistry and nuclear chemistry courses
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کتاب شیمی ماهیت مولکولی مواد و تغییرات آن

پنج شنبه، ۲۰ خرداد ۱۳۹۵
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Chemistry

The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change

نویسنده:  Martin Silberberg ،  Patricia Amateis 

The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change

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Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change by Martin Silberberg has been recognized in the general chemistry market as an unparalleled classic. The seventh edition keeps pace with the evolution of student learning by adding and significantly enhancing sample problems, a key resource of students. The text still contains unprecedented macroscopic-to-microscopic molecular illustrations, consistent step-by-step worked exercises in every chapter, and an extensive range of end-of-chapter problems, which provide engaging applications covering a wide variety of interests, including engineering, medicine, materials, and environmental studies. Changes have been made to the text and applications throughout to make them more succinct, to the artwork to make it more teachable and modern, and to the design to make it more simplistic and open.

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کتاب اثر حلال در شیمی

جمعه، ۱۷ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۵
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Solvent Effects in Chemistry

نویسنده: Erwin Buncel ،  Robert A. Stairs

Solvent Effects in Chemistry

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This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds. It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as "green" chemistry, where utilization and disposal of chemical waste or by-products in an environmentally safe way is as important as achieving the desired end products by all chemists nowadays.  The treatment progresses from elementary to advanced material in straightforward fashion. The more advanced topics are not developed in an overly rigorous way so that upper-level undergraduates, graduates, and newcomers to the field can grasp the concepts easily.

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پنج شنبه، ۱۶ اردیبهشت ۱۳۹۵
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Chemistry Workbook For Dummies

نویسنده:  Peter J. Mikulecky ، Chris Hren 

 Chemistry Workbook For Dummies

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Hundreds of practice problems to help you conquer chemistry

Are you confounded by chemistry? Subject by subject, problem by problem, Chemistry Workbook For Dummieslends a helping hand so you can make sense of this often-intimidating subject. Packed with hundreds of practice problems that cover the gamut of everything you'll encounter in your introductory chemistry course, this hands-on guide will have you working your way through basic chemistry in no time.

You can pick and choose the chapters and types of problems that challenge you the most, or you can work from cover to cover. With plenty of practice problems on everything from matter and molecules to moles and measurements, Chemistry Workbook For Dummies has everything you need to score higher in chemistry.

  • Practice on hundreds of beginning-to-advanced chemistry problems
  • Review key chemistry concepts
  • Get complete answer explanations for all problems
  • Focus on the exact topics of a typical introductory chemistry course

If you're a chemistry student who gets lost halfway through a problem or, worse yet, doesn't know where to begin,Chemistry Workbook For Dummies is packed with chemistry practice problems that will have you conquering chemistry in a flash!

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